Emergent, Floating and Submersed Plants


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    Emergent and Floating Plants

    Yellow Lily Pad

    “Emergent” plants live near the water’s edge and along the banks of rivers. These vascular plants often have deep and dense roots that stabilize shallow soils at the water’s edge. They also provide important habitat for birds, insects and other animals living near water.

    Submersed macrophytes are also rooted to the bottom but their leaves grow entirely underwater.  Due to this they may grow to greater depths than emergent and floating plants, dependent on the water clarity.  Submersed macrophytes create valuable habitat for fish and small invertebrates and food for ducks and aquatic mammals. When they become too abundant they interfere with boat propellers, modify flows in running water and may cause large day to night swings in dissolved oxygen and pH.


    • Phragmites- Unlike native plants like bulrushes, phragmites are morePhragmites dense and sturdy, which prevents waterfowl from building nests in the plants or feeding off them. Phragmites also grow and expand quicker than native species in the area and spread over 10 feet every year. Their abundance in the Great Salt Lake displaces many migrating bird species and kills off many more species of native plants. 

        Learn More About Phragmites 

     Purple Loosestrife

    • Purple Loosestrife- Originally from Asia, this wetland plant was brought to the country in the 1800s. Like phragmites, purple loosestrife forms dense and impenetrable stands, again preventing wetland animals to use the plant as cover or food. The wetland plant invades marshes, wetlands, and lakeshores--replacing native plant species and in severe cases endangering them. 

    Eurasion Milfoil

    •  Eurasian Watermilfoil- This plant is a submersed macrophyte which was accidentally introduced in the 1940s. It is tolerant of many pollutants and can survive in a variety of water habitats. However, Eurasian Watermilfoil tends to prefer slow moving rivers and streams or lakes. It does not typically spread into pristine ecosystems that have a well established native plant base. 

     Learn More About Invasive Species



    Susan Buffler's Riparian Buffer Design Guidelines

    Restoring Phragmites Invaded Wetlands