Triglochin maritima L.
Scientific Name Synonyms:
Triglochin elata Nutt.
Triglochin elatum Nutt., orth. Var.
Triglochin maritimum L.
Life Span: Perennial
Growth Characteristics: Arrowgrass is a wandlike herbaceous, obligate wetland plant 12-40 inches tall with rhizomes. Stems are closely tufted on a proliferating rhizome. Reproduction is from rhizomes and seed. Growth starts in early spring and flowering occurs June-August.
Seedhead: Rather inconspicuous flowers on short pedicels are green and may be several to many, spaced along a spikelike raceme. Fruits are almost cylindrical, up to 1/4 inch long and fall from the plant at maturity.
Leaves: Leaves are linear, 3-8 inches long, narrow and flattened or channeled. Short (less than 1/4 inch), membranous, entire or slightly bilobed ligules are present at the sheathing base.
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Arrowgrass is widely distributed in Utah and is found in wet alkaline lowlands, meadows and swamps at elevations from 4,200-8,800 feet. It is tolerant of saline and alkaline conditions.
Soils: Found in wet soils, and is toleratant of anaerobic conditions common in wet mineral and organic soils.
Associated Species: Associated species in Utah include wet meadow and wetland plants like Baltic rush, Nebraska sedge and red top.
Uses and Management:
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Arrowgrass is occasionally confused with rushes because it is rather inconspicuous and occurs in the habitats often dominated by them. It contains hydrocyanic acid, especially when drought- or frost-stressed, which makes it highly toxic to livestock, even in relatively small amounts ingested (≤¼ pound). It is a common component of wet meadows that are cut for hay. Arrowgrass in cured hay has been reported to cause poisoning in young animals.