Brief Research Summary: Cattle, Elk And Deer

    Brief Research Summary: Cattle, Elk And Deer

    Numbers at the end of end statement correspond to the number publications in the reference section.

    Effect of livestock on habitat and forage quality and quantity for deer and elk

    1. Livestock grazing improves forage quality for deer and elk. (1, 2, 3, 4, 12)
    2. Livestock grazing did not improve forage quality on winter range. (5)
    3. Livestock grazing in spring reduces fall standing crop. (1, 2, 4)
    4. Livestock grazing in fall reduces spring but not summer standing crop. (3)
    5. Elk and deer prefer to forage in areas previously used by livestock. (7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14)
    6. Previous grazing by cattle had no effect on where elk chose to forage (6, 11)
    7. The presence of livestock changes habitat use of deer and elk. (14, 15, 17, 18)
    8. Livestock and wildlife use different areas of rangeland. (16)
    9. Elk and deer prefer to forage in areas previously burned. (8)
    10. Burning had no effect on where elk chose to forage. (11)


    1. Ganskopp, D., L. Aguilera and M. Vavra. 2007. Livestock Forage Conditioning Among Six Northern Great Basin Grasses. Range. Ecol. Manage. 60:71–78.
    2. Ganskopp, D. T. Svejcar and M. Vavra. 2004. Livestock forage conditioning: Bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue, and bottlebrush squirreltail. J. Range Manage. 57:384-392.
    3. Short, J.J. and J.E. Knight. 2003. Fall grazing affects big game forage on rough fescue grasslands. J. Range Manage. 56: 213-217.
    4. Clark, P.E., W.C. Kruger, L.D. Bryant and D.R. Thomas. 2000. Livestock grazing effects on forage quality of elk winter range. J. Range Manage. 53:97–105.
    5. Wambolt, C.L., M.R. Frisina, K. S. Douglass, and H.W. Sherwood. 1997. Grazing effects on nutritional quality of bluebunch wheatgrass for elk. J. Range Manage. 50:503-506.
    6. Halstead, L.E., L.D. Howery, G.B. Ruyle, P.R. Krausman, and R. J. Steidl. 2002. Elk and cattle forage use under a specialized grazing system. J. Range Manage. 55: 360-366.
    7. Frisina, M.R. 1992. Elk Habitat Use within a Rest-Rotation Grazing System. Rangelands 14:93-96
    8. Jourdonnais, C.S. and D.J. Bedunah. 1990. Prescribed Fire and Cattle Grazing on an Elk Winter Range in Montana. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:232-240.
    9. Anderson, E.W., D.L. Franzen, and J.E. Melland. 1990. RxGrazing to Benefit Watershed-Wildlife-Livestock. Rangelands 12:105-111.
    10. Grover, K.E. and M.J. Thompson. 1986. Factors influencing spring feeding site selection by elk in the Elkhorn Mountains, Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:466-470.
    11. Skovlin, J.M., P.J. Edgerton and B.R. McConnell. 1983. Elk Use of Winter Range as Affected by Cattle Grazing, Fertilizing, and Burning in Southeastern Washington. J. Range Manage. 36:184-189.
    12. Willms, W., and A. Mclean. 1978. Spring forage selection by tame mule deer on big sagebrush range, British Columbia. J. Range Manage. 31:192-199.
    13. Anderson, E.W. and R. J. Scherzinger. 1975. Improving Quality of Winter Forage for Elk by Cattle Grazing. J. Range Manage. 28:120-125.
    14. Yeo, J.J., J. M. Peek, W.T. Wittinger, and C.T. Kvale. 1993. Influence of rest-rotation cattle grazing on mule deer and elk habitat use in east-central Idaho. J. Range Manage. 46:245-250.
    15. Loft, E.R., J.W. Menke and J.G. Kie. 1991. Habitat shifts by mule deer: The influence of grazing cattle. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:16-26.
    16. Hart, R.H., K.W. Hepworth, M.A. Smith, AND J.W. Waggoner, Jr. 1991. Cattle grazing behavior on a foothill elk winter range in southeastern Wyoming. J. Range Manage. 44:262-266.
    17. Wallace, M.C. and P.R. Krausman. 1987. Elk, Mule Deer, and Cattle Habitats in Central Arizona. J. Range. Manage. 40:80-83.
    18. Stevens, D.R. 1966. Range Relationships of Elk and Livestock, Crow Creek Drainage, Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. ?30:349-363.