White Rice

Authors: Jana Darrington USU Extension Agent and Brian A. Nummer, Ph.D, USU Food Safety Extension Specialist
September 2008

White rice, more commonly known as polished rice is a main food source for over half of the world’s population. Rice is an excellent addition to home food storage because it’s versatile, high caloric value, and long shelf life.   Families should store about 300 lbs of grains per person in a one-year supply. Depending on personal preference, about 25 to 60 lbs of rice should be stored per person.  Separate from brown rice, there are three types of white rice in the United States: long, medium, and short.  In addition, there are several types of specialty rice available.


Long Grain.
long grain polished rice is about three times longer than it is wide.  After cooking it is firm and fluffy (not sticky) .

Medium Grain. medium grain polished rice is between 2-3 times longer than it is wide. Cooked U.S. medium grain rice is soft, moist and sticky in texture.

Short Grain. short grain Rice is less than two times longer than it is wide.  Short grain rice is very sticky and sometimes called sushi rice.

 

Specialty varieties include Arborio, Basmati, Della or Dellmont, Japanese premium, Jasmine, Toro, and Waxy. Analyses on which variety stores best have not been done.  Raw rice is made of three layers: the hull, bran, and kernel. Polishing removes the hull and bran layers from the polished rice kernel. Before milling, raw rice may be parboiled, a process of soaking in water and steaming under intense pressure, which pushes the natural vitamins and minerals from the rice bran layer to the kernel.

Quality & Purchase. Purchase quality rice grains from a trusted source. Inspect rice for insects or discoloration[Bj4] , prior to preparing for home storage. Do not buy rice infested with insects.

Packaging. Store rice in a tightly sealed container. Food safe plastics (PETE) containers, glass jars, #10 cans (commercial size) lined with a food-grade enamel lining and Mylar®-type bags work best for long-term storage. Use food-safe oxygen absorbers [Bj5] available from food storage supply stores to preserve rice quality, and protect from insect infestation. #10 cans will hold approximate 5.7 lbs (2.6 kgs) of polished rice.

Storage Conditions. The best temperature to store grains, including rice, is 40°F or below; however, rice stored at a constant 70° F with oxygen absorbers will store well for up to 10 years. In cooler storage areas rice sealed in oxygen-free containers can be stored for up to 30 years. A B.Y.U. study sampling polished rice and parboiled rice stored from 1 to 30 years found that both types of rice will keep their nutrients and flavor up to 30 years.

Nutrition & Allergies. In the United States, vitamins and minerals: iron, niacin, thiamin, and folic acid are added to rice. Rice is high in starch and fiber. In addition, rice is low in sodium and a good source of protein.  There are no known common allergies to rice or its constituents.

Shelf life.   When properly sealed and stored, polished white rice will store well for 25 to 30 years.  

Use from storage.  After opening use rice within one to two years.

References.

1.       Briefing - Rice: Background. (2008). Retrieved June 20, 2008 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Rice/background.htm

2.       Connor, W. E., & Conner, S. L. (n.d.).  Rice- based diets: Nutritional properties.  Retrieved July 8, 2008 from http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Pre-Sma/Rice-based-Diets.html

3.       Coons, L., Halling, M., Lloyd, M. A., Ogden, L. V., & Pike, O. A. (2004, July). Quality of regular and parboiled rice in long-term storage. Poster presented at the Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, [LOCATION].

4.       Coons, L., Halling, M., Lloyd, M. A., Ogden, L. V., & Pike, O.A. (2004). Quality of regular and parboiled rice in long-term storage.  IFT Book of Abstracts, No. 99F-8, 272. 

5.       Halling, M. B., Van Noy, N. D., Ogden, L. V., & Pike O. A. (2003, July). Quality of white rice retail packaged in No. 10 cans for long-term storage.  Poster presented at the Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, [LOCATION].

6.      Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service.  (n.d.).  Cupboard approximate storage times. Retrieved June 26, 2008 from http://www.uga.edu/nchfp/how/store/ksu_cupboard.pdf

7.       Pahulu, H. F., Davidson, R. T., Dunn, M. L., Ogden, L. V., Steele, F. M., & Pike, O. A. (2007). Change in mutagenicity in white rice after accelerated and long-term storage. Journal of Food Science, 72 (2), C126-C131.

8.       Product Recommendations. (n.d). Family home storage: Longer-term supply.  Retrieved June 20, 2008 from http://providentliving.org/content/display/0,11666,7531-1-4062-1,00.html

9.       Research - Rice quality categories.  (2005).  Retrieved June 20, 2008 from http://www.ars.usda.gov/Research/docs.htm?docid=7060

10.   Storage pests:  Insects. (n.d.).  Retrieved June 26, 2008 from http://zj.shuidao.cn/IRRI/Storage/6.A._Insects.htm