Jellies, Jams and Preserves

    Jellies, Jams and Preserves

    Apple Jelly

    4 cups apple juice (about 3 pounds tart apples and 3 cups water)

    2 tbsp lemon juice (optional)

    3 cups sugar

    To prepare juice: Select one-fourth slightly under-ripe and three-fourths fully-ripe apples. Wash apples; remove stem and blossom ends; do not peel or core. Cut apples into small pieces. Add water; cover; bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat; simmer 20 to 25 minutes or until apples are soft. Strain juice through a damp jelly bag or several layers of cheesecloth.

    To make jelly: Put apple juice in a large saucepot. Add lemon juice and sugar, stirring to dissolve sugar. Boil over high heat, stirring constantly, to 8 degrees F above the boiling point of water at your altitude or until jelly mixture sheets from a spoon. (To check boiling point at your altitude, bring a small pan of water to a boil and note the temperature.) Remove from heat. Skim foam if necessary. Ladle hot jelly into hot, sterilized jars, leaving 1/4 inch headspace. Adjust two-piece caps. Process in a boiling water-bath canner. Yield: about 4 half-pints.

    applejelly*Note: When processing time is less than 10 minutes, jars need to be sterilized prior to filling.

    There are two basic methods of making jams and jellies. The standard method, which does not require added pectin, works best with fruits naturally high in pectin. The other method, which requires the use of commercial liquid or powdered pectin, is much quicker. Because the gelling ability of various pectins differs, be sure to follow the instruction on the package exactly. When using either method, keep these tips in mind. Make one batch of jam or jelly at a time, following the instructions exactly. Remember that doubling the recipe may prevent proper gelling. Stir jams and jellies constantly while cooking to prevent burning. Process all jams and jellies in a boiling water canner to insure their safety. Jams and jellies canned in sterile jars should be processed for 5 minutes. Add one additional minute per 1,000 feet elevation to processing times to adjust for higher elevations. Non-sterile jars may be used if the processing time is 10 minutes or more.

    Making Jam Without Added Pectin

    Wash and rinse all fruits thoroughly before cooking. Do not soak. For best flavor, use fully ripe fruit. Remove stems, skins, and pits from apricots. Cut fruit into pieces and crush.

    Apricot Jam

    4 - 4 1/2 cups crushed apricots

    4 cups sugar

    2 tablespoons lemon juice

    Measure the crushed fruit into a large saucepan. Add sugar and bring to a boil while stirring rapidly and constantly. Continue to boil until mixture thickens. Use one of the tests below to determine when jams are ready. Remember to allow for thickening during cooling. Remove from heat and skim off foam quickly. Fill sterile jars with jam using a measuring cup or ladle and a wide-mouthed funnel. Leave 1/4 inch headspace. Adjust lids and process for 5 minutes at elevations up to 1,000 feet and 10 minutes for elevations between 1,001 and 6000 feet. Jams processed for 10 minutes do not require pre-sterilized jars. Yield: 5-6 half-pints.

    Testing Jelly For Doneness

    Temperature Test: Use a jelly or candy thermometer to check the temperature of the boiling fruit mixture. Bring the mixture to the temperature indicated for your altitude.

    apricotjelly

    Sheet or Spoon Test

    Dip a cool metal spoon into the boiling jelly mixture. Raise the spoon about 12 inches above the pan (out of the steam). Turn the spoon so the liquid runs off the side. The jelly is done when the syrup forms two drops that flow together and sheet or hang off the edge of the spoon. 

    Making Jams and Jellies With Added Pectin

    Jams or jellies made with added pectin require less cooking and generally give a larger yield than products made without added pectin. These products also have a more natural fruit flavor. Another benefit of using added pectin is that it eliminates the need to test hot jellies and jams for proper gelling. The order in which the ingredients are combined will vary depending on the type of pectin used.

    There are two types of pectin available on the market, regular pectin and modified pectin. Regular pectin can generally be used to make cooked jams and jellies or no-cook freezer jams and jellies. There is some variation in brands however so be sure to read the package to insure that the pectin you purchase is designed to make the type of jam you want.

    There are two types of pectins sold for reduced sugar products. One type forms a gel with 1/3 less sugar and the other, a low-methoxyl pectin, requires a calcium source to form a gel. These pectins make it possible to reduce or eliminate sugar in jams and jellies. Like the regular pectins, be sure to read the instructions so the pectin will produce the type of jam you want. Follow the instructions provided in the pectin package to make the apricot jam, apricot-pineapple jam, apricot butter, or apricot freezer jam.

    Berry Jam without Added Pectin

    4 cups crushed berries

    4 cups sugar

    Yield: 3 to 4 half-pints

    Wash and rinse all berries thoroughly before cooking. Do not soak. For best flavor, use fully ripe berries. Remove stems and blossoms and crush. Seedy berries may be put through a sieve or food mill to make seedless jam. Measure crushed berries into large saucepan. Add sugar and bring to a boil while stirring rapidly and constantly. Continue to boil, until mixture thickens. For best results, use a jelly or candy thermometer and boil until mixture reaches the temperature for your altitude in the following table:

    berryjelly

    Remove from heat and skim off foam quickly. Fill jars with jam. Use a measuring cup or ladle the jam through a wide-mouthed funnel, leaving 1/4 inch head space. Adjust lids and process.


    bp*If processing time is less than 10 minutes, sterilize jars by holding in boiling water for 10 minutes before filling. 

    Making Jams and Jellies with Added Pectin

    Fresh fruits and juices as well as commercially canned or frozen fruit juice can be used with commercially prepared powdered or liquid pectins. The order of combining ingredients depends on the type of pectin used. Complete directions for a variety of fruits are provided with packaged pectin. Jelly or jam made with added pectin requires less cooking and generally gives a larger yield. These products have more of a fresh fruit flavor, but less concentrated flavor. In addition, using added pectin eliminates the need to test hot jellies and jams for proper gelling. Adding 1/2 teaspoon of butter or margarine with the juice and pectin will reduce foaming. However, these may cause off-flavor in long-term storage of jellies and jams.

    Be sure to use Mason canning jars, self-sealing two-piece lids, and appropriate boiling water bath time.

    Purchase fresh pectin each year. Old pectin may result in poor gels. Follow the instructions with each package and process as below:

    pectin2*If processing time is less than 10 minutes, sterilize jars by holding in boiling water for 10 minutes before filling.

    Strawberry Freezer Jam

    2 cups finely crushed strawberries

    4 cups sugar

    1 package powdered pectin

    3/4 cup water

    Combine strawberries and sugar. Let stand about 20 minutes, stirring occasionally. Combine pectin and water in a small sauce pan. Bring to a boil. Boil 1 minute, stirring constantly. Add pectin to fruit mixture; stir 3 minutes. Ladle jam into freezer containers. Let stand at room temperature until set, up to 24 hours. Label and freeze. Yield: about 6 half pints.

    Berry Syrup

    Juices from fresh or frozen blueberries, raspberries (black or red), and strawberries are easily made into toppings for use on ice cream and pastries.

    Yield: About 9 half-pints

    Procedure: Select 6 1/2 cups of fresh or frozen berries of your choice. Wash, cap, and stem fresh fruit and crush in a saucepan. Heat to boiling and simmer until soft (5-10 minutes). Strain hot through a colander and drain until cool enough to handle. Strain the collected juice through a double layer of cheesecloth or jelly bag. Discard the dry pulp. The yield of the pressed juice should be about 4 1/2 to 5 cups. Combine the juice with 6 3/4 cups of sugar in a large saucepan, bring to boil, and simmer 1 minute. To make a syrup with whole fruit pieces, save 1 or 2 cups of the fresh or frozen fruit, combine these with the sugar and juice, and simmer as in making regular syrup. Remove from heat, skim off foam, and fill into clean half-pint or pint jars, leaving 1/2 inch head space. Adjust lids and process.

    syrupb

    Fresh cherries can be used with commercially prepared powdered or liquid pectins to make jam. The order of combining ingredients depends on the type of pectin used.

    Complete directions for jam are provided with packaged pectin. Be sure to use hot canning jars, self-sealing two-piece lids, and a boiling water bath with the correct processing time for your altitude. If your altitude is less than 1000 feet, sterilize empty jars by boiling 10 minutes. It is not necessary to sterilize jars when the processing time will be 10 minutes or longer.

    Recommended Process Time for Cherry Jam in a Boiling-Water Canner:

    cherryjam

    Fig Jam

    5 pounds figs (2 quarts chopped figs)

    6 cups sugar

    3/4 cup water

    1/4 cup lemon juice

    Prepare figs: Cover figs with boiling water and let stand 10 minutes. Drain, stem and chop figs. Prepare Jam: Combine figs, sugar, and water. Bring to a boil, stirring until sugar dissolves. Cook until thick. Stir frequently to prevent sticking. Add lemon juice and cook 1 minute longer. Remove from heat and skim foam if necessary. Pour hot jam in hot jars*, leaving 1/4 inch headspace. Adjust lids and process.

    figp

    Fig Preserves

    Yield: About 5 pint jars

    3 quarts figs

    1 1/2 quarts water

    3 quarts boiling water

    4 cups sugar

    2 lemons, thinly sliced

    Pour 3 quarts boiling water over figs. Let stand 15 minutes. Drain and discard liquid. Rinse figs in cold water and drain. Prepare syrup: Mix sugar, 1 1/2 quarts water and lemon. Boil rapidly for 10 minutes. Skim syrup and discard lemon slices. Drop figs into syrup, a few at a time. Cook rapidly until figs are transparent. Remove figs and place in shallow pan. Boil syrup until thick, pour over figs and let stand 6-8 hours. Sterilize jars. Reheat figs and syrup to boiling. Pour hot preserves into hot jars*, leaving 1/4 inch headspace.

    figjelly

    Fig Conserve

    6 lbs figs

    4-5 oranges

    4 1/2 lbs sugar

    1 1/2 c. pecans

    1 1/2 lbs raisins

    Cut figs and oranges into small pieces. Combine figs, oranges, sugar and raisins. Cook over low heat until thick and transparent. This will take about one hour. Stir periodically. Add nuts five minutes before removing from heat. Transfer to jars and process in boiling water canner using the times given above for fig preserves.

    Grape Jam

    2 quarts grapes (Concord, Muscadine, Scuppernog)

    6 cups sugar

    To prepare pulp: Separate pulp from skins of grapes. Chop skins, if desired. Cook skins gently 15 to 20 minutes, adding only enough water to prevent sticking (about 1/2 cup). Cook pulp until soft. Press through sieve or food mill to remove seeds.

    To prepare jam: Combine pulp, skins and sugar in a large saucepot. Bring slowly to boil, stirring until sugar dissolves. Cook rapidly almost to gelling point, about 10 minutes. As mixture thickens; stir frequently to prevent sticking. Remove from heat. Skim foam if necessary. Ladle hot jam into hot jars, leaving 1/4-inch headspace. Adjust two-piece caps. Process in a boiling water canner. Yield: about 3 pints.

    grapejelly

    *Note: if processing time is less than 10 minutes, sterilize canning jars first.

    Grape Jelly (No added pectin)

    4 cups Concord grape juice (about 3 1/2 pounds)

    3 cups sugar

    Yield: 4 half-pints

    To prepare juice: Select about 1/4 firm-ripe and 3/4 fully ripe grapes. Wash and stem fruit. Slightly crush fruit and add 1/2 cup water for each quart prepared fruit in a large saucepot. Cover; simmer fruit until soft. To prevent formation of tartrate crystals in grape jelly, let juice stand in a cool place 12 to 24 hours; strain through damp jelly bag or several layers of cheesecloth or coffee filter to remove crystals that have formed.

    To make jelly: Put grape juice in large saucepot. Add sugar, stirring until dissolved. Boil over high heat, stirring constantly. Boil over high heat to 8°F above the boiling point of water or until jelly mixture sheets from a spoon. Remove from heat. Skim foam if necessary. Ladle hot jelly into hot jars, leaving 1/4-inch headspace. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. Adjust two-piece caps. Process in a boiling water canner as listed in above table.

    Grape Jelly (With added pectin)

    5 cups grape juice (about 4 1/2 pounds Concord grapes)

    1 package powdered pectin

    5 cups sugar

    Yield: about 6 half-pints

    Juice: Follow instructions for preparing juice in the above jelly recipe.

    To make jelly: Juice may be used fresh, canned or frozen previously. Combine grape juice and pectin in large saucepot. Bring to boil over high heat, stirring constantly. Add sugar, stirring until dissolved. Return mixture to rolling boil. Boil hard 1 minute, stirring constantly. Skim foam if necessary. Ladle hot jelly into hot jars, leaving 1/4-inch headspace. Adjust two-piece caps. Process in a boiling water canner as listed in above table.

    Pear Syrup

    5 pounds pears, peeled and cored

    10 cups sugar

    2 cups crushed pineapple

    Stir all together and cook 20 minutes or until of spreading consistency. Mash with potato masher to desired consistency. Put in hot jars (leaving 1/2 inch headspace), add clean lids and rings. Process in a boiling water bath canner as shown in the processing time table below.

    Pear Butter

    2 quarts pear pulp (about 20 medium, fully ripe pears)

    4 cups sugar

    1/3 cup orange juice

    1 teaspoon grated orange rind

    1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg or 1/2 ground ginger

    Quarter and core pears. Cook until soft, adding only enough water to prevent sticking. Press through a sieve or food mill. Measure pulp. Add remaining ingredients; cook until thick, about 15 minutes. As mixture thickens, stir frequently to prevent sticking. Pour hot butter into jars, leaving 1/4 inch head space. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. Process as shown in the processing time table below.

    Pear-Pineapple Jam

    24 large pears (if small, use 36)

    3-4 large oranges

    1 can #2 or 2 1/2 cups crushed pineapple, drained

    Sugar

    Peel pears and cut in small pieces. Peel oranges and cut in small pieces. Mix all fruit together; measure. For each cup of fruit, add 2/3 cup sugar. Mix and allow to stand 24 hours. Bring to a boil and let simmer 1 hour. Put in hot jars (leaving 1/2 inch headspace), add clean lids and rings. Process as shown in the processing time table below.

    pj

    *Note: If processing time is less than 10 minutes, sterilize jar before filling.

    Spiced Pears

    3 1/2 pounds medium-ripe pears (14-16)

    2 1/2 cups sugar

    1 1/4 cup white vinegar

    1 cup water

    Tie in a spice bag:

    2 teaspoons whole ginger

    2 tablespoons whole cloves

    7 sticks cinnamon (3-inch pieces)

    Wash, peel, and core pears. Place immediately in a solution of ½ teaspoon ascorbic acid and 2 quarts of water to prevent browning. Combine sugar, vinegar, and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Add spices tied in cheesecloth bag. Boil 5 minutes. Drain pears and add to syrup. Simmer 5 minutes or until soft but still firm. Remove spice bag. Pack pears into hot jars, leaving 1/2 inch headspace. Fill jars to ½ inch of top with boiling hot syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Process 15 minutes in a boiling water bath.

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